# Introduction to Cindicator (CND) Part 7

### CND and the sciences.

In science, decentralized approach could improve the quality of research by removing emotions and human sentiment similarly to how it would do so in finance and investment decision-making. It could also use the wisdom of the crowds to come up with new and unusual solutions to existing problems.

Galton Experiment

For example, in 1906 famous British researcher Francis Galton decided to survey the visitors of a rural farm fair by asking them to guess the weight of a bull that public could see on display during the fair. The organizers of the survey promised a prize to those survey participants that guessed close to the real weight. During the survey, Galton asked about 8000 people, some of whom were experienced farmers and some of whom had no experience with farming, animals and agriculture whatsoever. The average guess out of all the participants who tried to guess the weight right was 1197 pounds. The actual answer was 1198 pounds. This means that as a group that tried its best, the group was very close to the true answer.

The wisdom of the crowds in modern days

Similar numbers come from the TV show called Who Wants To Be a Millionaire. When participants of the show do not know the answer to the questions, they can call a friend or ask the audience. Stats show that calling a friend results in the correct answer in 65% of the outcomes while using the wisdom of the audience results in the correct outcome in 91% of cases.

Sociologist Heigl Knight conducted a similar experiment, asking students to make an assumption about the temperature in the room. The average of the guesses was 22.44 degrees Celsius, and the actual temperature in the room was 22.2C.

The studies about the wisdom of the crowds have been extremely popular for about four decades starting from 1920s.

James Surowiecki justified this idea and explained in detail how it works in his 2005 book under the same name, The Wisdom of The Crowds. In the book, Surowiecki pointed out several requirements that sometimes may be hard to accomplish in the modern society for the wisdom of the crowds to work. The first requirement is that people actually need to think about an answer that they are about to give and focus on the task. The wisdom of the crowds is not going to work if you take a crowd of people staring at their mobile phones and have each of these people give an answer while being shortly interrupted from whatever they are doing. The second requirement for the wisdom of the crowds to work is that the opinions of the people need to be independent, meaning that a person giving an opinion canâ€™t know about what others have said and will not be punished if the answer is too far off.